- Prepare two qubits QA and QB in the Bell state (same as the first step of the superdense coding protocol).
- Send QA to Alice and QB to Bob.
- Alice has a third qubit QC in an unknown state which she will "teleport" to Bob. What she will really be doing is sending Bob two classical bits representing one of four actions Bob can perform on QB to transform it into whatever state QC was in.
- Initial state of the 3-qubit system (after QA and QB have been prepared in the Bell state Φ+):
- Alice applies the same gates that Bob did in the last step of the superdense coding protocol. She applies a controlled NOT gate (CNOT) to QC and QA, with QC as the control bit. Then she applies a Hadamard gate (H) to QC.
The state of the 3-qubit system is now the following:
- Now Alice measures QC and QA and sends the result (two classical bits) to Bob.
- If Bob receives 00, his qubit QB must be in the following state (note that |a|2 + |b|2 = 1):
This is the same as the initial state of Alice's qubit QC — so Bob leaves QB unchanged (or applies the identity matrix I).
- Similarly, if Bob receives 01, QB is in the state b|0〉 + a|1〉
He can apply the X gate to QB to transform its state into the initial state of QC
- If Bob receives 10, QB is in the state a|0〉 − b|1〉
He can apply the Z gate to QB to transform its state into the initial state of QC
- Finally, if Bob receives 11, QB is in the state −b|0〉 + a|1〉
He can apply the X gate followed by the Z gate to transform the state of QB into the initial state of QC